chernobylforever [Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus]
 




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Name [5 - ETB and BELRAD]
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 +<td width="​140"​ align="​center"><​big>​Amount committed : <​br>​out of 27 500 €</​big></​td>​
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 +
 +<boi frame-orange 80%| <WRAP centeralign>​**Origin and goal of the operation Tchernobyl forever**</​WRAP>>​
 +In January 2012, Alain-Gilles Bastide put the finishing touches to his travel diary "​**Tchernobyl forever**",​ but he had about it the same feeling that he had about this awesome picture of "the Atomic Doll": this diary didn't pertained to him.\\
 +
 +So he conceived this project : use it to make a participatory work, by having other people associated to the project. **Tchernobyl forever** is  a project of a book-DVD oriented towards an humanitarian campaign to help the children irradiated after the Chernobyl catastrophe,​ and abandoned to their fate by the authority and the media, like it Chernobyl was over. So he submitted this idea to the association "​Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus",​ with which he set up the operation. Today, it is ready, and must be carried through. "**The success of this operation is in everyone'​s hands.**"​\\ ​
 +
 +<WRAP centeralign>​ <wrap caution>​[[http://​www.ulule.com/​tchernobyl-forever/​|Participate,​ help the children ! Thank you.]]</​wrap>​ </​WRAP>​
 +
 +</​boi>​
 +
 +
 +====== Special Operation : Tchernobyl forever ======
 +~~NOTOC~~
 +
 +<​WRAP>​
 +{{popup>:​operation-speciale:​poupee-etb.jpg?​190 |}} <​tab>​This photo has been taken in the kindergarden of Prypiat in 2005. Somebody I met while I was preparing my trip talked to me about this doll head which shocked her, 10 years ago,when she went there. I finally found it under a tree which had grown alongside. Even my guide did not know it.
 +
 +<​tab>​Unfortunately,​ after I took this photo and that the image was publicized, starting a "trip around the world",​ I found out that some moronic tourists torn it off its natural mausoleum, just to be able to be at ease to take a picture of it. That's really sad.
 +
 +<​tab>​When I came back somebody asked me immediately if they could buy this image. I was surprised, embarrassed. I answered that it was not for sale, that I had the impression, the feeling rather, that it did not pertain to me. I gave it to the CRIIRAD for a financial operation for a laboratory in Belarus for Bandazhewsky. Then, Laure Nouhalat used it until recently for her Blog Terre on Libé. Then the exhibitions I made of around twenty images ofT//​chernobyl Forever//. And finally, it appears more or less everywhere, maybe like Laure Nouhalat said, because it is "​dreadfully beautiful"​.\\
 +<​tab><​tab>​**Alain-Gilles Bastide**
 +</​WRAP>​
 +<WRAP clear></​WRAP>​
 +<WRAP centeralign>​{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​graph-en.jpg?​400|}}</​WRAP>​\\
 +
 +<boi frame-blue|<​WRAP centeralign>​**CHERNOBYL - BELRAD - ENFANTS DE TCHERNOBYL BELARUS**</​WRAP>>​
 +<​tab>​Twenty years after Chernobyl, the public does not really have a synthetic vision of the huge implications and meanings of this disaster. The project //Chernobyl Forever// encouraged me to propose a synthesis in two large parts to go with the DVD book offered by the instigator of the projet and the artists, scientists, designers, and writers who offered their aid.\\
 +
 +<​tab>​The first party (chapters 1 to 3) offers a statement and a viewpoint : The statement tells about the amount of contamination of the alimentary chain and of the organisms of the population living the contaminated territories and gives an idea of the catastrophic situation of the health of the children, which is getting worse with the years passing ; The viewpoint is about the intensity of the fallout compared to the ones measured in an area close to Nagasaki which received the "black rains" after the explosion on August 9th 1945.\\
 +
 +<​tab>​The second part (chapters 4 and 5) tells the story of an independent company working to take care os the radioprotection of the children, the most vulnerable to the body contamination due to Chernobyl fallout. It is about //BELRAD Institute//,​ from Minsk, Belarus, definitely bound to the great personality of its founder, Vassily Nesterenko. And it is, since April 27th 2001, about the french association //Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus//, that I'm honored to preside since March 2010. Our association brings to //BELRAD// a financial support without which theInstitute would have disappeared.\\
 +
 +<​tab>​We are thankful and honored for having been chosen as cooperator with the association //​Photographisme//​ for the adventure //​Tchernobyl Forever//​.\\
 +
 +<​tab>​**Yves Lenoir**, //​president ​ of the association Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus.//
 +
 +</​boi>​
 +
 +===== Chernobyl, 28 years later :​ Tchernobyl forever =====
 +<fs medium>​The actions of //BELRAD// institute from Minsk and of the association Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus[(http://​www.belrad-institute.org)]</​fs>​
 +
 +//Yves Lenoir, /​president ​ of the association Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus ​ (février-mars 2014)//
 +
 +==== Introduction ====
 +<​tab>​**Prologue.**\\
 +
 +{{popup>:​base_documentaire:​yves-lenoir.jpg?​155 ​ |}}<​tab>​We are getting close to the half-life of the Cs137 spread by Chernobyl accident. Now it is as good as any time to present a short synthesis of this strange situation that view by far, superficially,​ seems to say « //Chernobyl belongs to the past// » while nothing is fixed. We know for sure that the children are more and more sick, and that their body contamination tends to diminish only where theInstitute of Radiation safety //BELRAD// intervene. But an immense uncertainty,​ not to say a dangerous shadow, threatens the generations from after Chernobyl. For these sicker and sicker children are now and henceforth born after the catastrophe. They did not endure the « radioactive iodine shock ». Not all of them are living in a badly contaminated environment. But all their parents went through this shock, and a lot of them come from evacuee villages. lot too have been contaminating themselves by eating good tasting but radioactive food found in the wild mushrooms, berries, game, fishing product...) and by working in the familial kitchen garden.++++Read more...|
 +<​tab>​The purpose of this text written to accompany the awesome and generous project //​Tchernobyl forever//​[(Alain-Gilles Bastide photographed the area in 2005 and then designed the project //Chernobyl forever//​.)] . //​Tchernobyl forever// introduces us in the //Zone//. It is our guide, the one who invites us to look « innocently » -sirius point of view - at this monstrous residue, branded by the invisible print of the radioactivity and the ravaghes of time left behind by the atomic catastrophe. It is a //​stalker//​.
 +<​tab>​The word //stalker// is irreducibly attached to the initiatory unveiling of this « world after ». In 1972, a. and B. Strougatsky brothers inaugurate the modern form of the theme with their novel //​Stalker//​. This book inspired This book inspired the masterpiece //​Stalker//​[(Synopsis (excerpts) of the movie //Stalker (1979): « There is a zone, which nobody knows the nature of. Has it been affected by an atomic bomb ? A meteorite ? the landing of extra terrestrials ? This zone if feared by everybody and surrounded by the police. We cannot penetrate : it is regarded as dangerous. In its heart is said that there is a place, « the chamber », where all the wishes can become true. Ferrymen, called « stalkers », can lead those who try to reach the zone...\\
 +<​tab>​A writer and a physics teacher managed to establish contact with a stalker and decide to enter the zone and to discover this famous chamber. They do not know that the zone follow its own rules, which only the stalker can understand the meaning of. These rules coerces The teacher and the writer to reveal their intimate personality,​ what the hide deeply inside themselves...//​)] to A. Tarkovsky. In 2011, Alain de Halleux started and ended his movie //Chernobyl 4 ever//[(See the movie at http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=films-interviews-debats#​folded_51)] with sequences of the video game, named //Stalker// too[(Annonced in 2001, this game developed in Ukraine has been rewarded as the best game of this kind after its publication in 2006.)]. The point is here : The film maker is the //stalker// opening the mind of a group of Ukrainian musicians to the meaning of the Zone, on the spot and in their minds.
 +<​tab>​It’s up to us, modestly, with a full conscience of our own limits, to play this character of //​stalker//​. He is the one who tries to make understandable,​ to himself first the new world, deeply terrifying, created by the atomic catastrophe,​ and then pass on the message to others. Without that, the thread could be broken, which everybody in this chain of stalkers pulls his own way. Tarkovsky knew that there was a forbidden area in the Oural, after an horrifying catastrophe. Colossal visionary poet, he discovered the link between human desires and dreams, and triggering of a disaster with the fascination that it inspires. The liquidator who created the the video game //stalker// grabbed the relay and transmitted to a new generation who has probably never seen the movie from Tarkovsky. Alain de Halleux surprises a teenager playing this game in a bar in Kiev and, seduced by the abyss opened under his feet, finds there a fecund idea for a classical scenario. //​Tchernobyl forever//, chosen bay Alain-Gilles Bastide as a title for his book collecting photos of the //Zone// induces me to stimulate the imagination,​ because in English, //stalker// always describes somebody who follows, watches and bothers someone constantly. So many powers try to make us forget Chernobyl that trying to play the role of the //stalker// who reopens it with obstinacy is not useless or unworthiness.\\
 +<​tab>​A very great stalker open the way, Vassily Nesterenko†. This work is dedicated to his memory.\\
 +<​tab>​Summary.
 +  - Twenty years after Chernobyl, the radiologic situation of Belarus stays a permanent threat for the inhabitants of the contaminated regions.
 +  - Belarus, North of Ukraine, south-west of Russia : A situation worst than post atomic war.
 +  - The sanitary situation endless deteriorates,​ especially for the children.
 +  - History of //BELRAD// : its gestation ; its irreplaceable role.
 +  - //Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus// and //BELRAD// : a long solitary trajectory.

 +
 +~~REFNOTES~~
 +++++
 +
 +==== 1 - The problems remain ====
 +<WRAP centeralign><​fs medium>​Twenty eight years after Chernobyl, the radiological situation\\ stays a permanent threat for the residents of the contaminated regions</​fs></​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​The reality of this threat isestablished first by the contamination of the plants and animals in the parts of the areas where important fallout took place in 1986, and on another way by themeasurements of the radioactive load of the children followed by the institude of radiation safety BELRAD.\\
 +<​tab>​The data collected during the last few years shows evidence of the permanence of the risk of alimentary contamination. The two tables hereunder are about the year 2013 :
 +++++Read more...|
 +<WRAP centeralign>​{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​problemes-01.jpg?​580|}}
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​problemes-02.jpg?​580|}}
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​problemes-03.jpg?​580|}}
 +</​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​We can see that 15.2% of the controled samples are contaminated beyond the legal limits in Belarus, as shown below :\\
 +<​tab>​Are these limits, following the recommendation of the //IRPC// (International Radiological Protection Commission) protective ? The build-up resulting from a chronical absorption of 10 Bq/day of Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>​ gives he answer : no. We will separate 5 categories of human beings : the nursling up to one year (1), the child up to 14 years (2), the female teenager and the woman (3), the male teenager (4) and the adult man (5). The biological characteristic times[(Caracteristic time : the time needed for one absorption to be reduced of 1/e. So it’s equal to 1.44 the half-life. Multiplying the daily absorption by this factor, we obtain the limit body load, reached after about 5 times this caracteristic time.)] of the Cs137 are, in the same order, 15, 30, 60, 100, and 150 days. The body weights to consider are, still in the same order, 6, 40, 60, 70 and 85 kg. As we will see the younger the subject the faster the balance between chronical ingestion and elimination is reached. The table -1- hereunder shows the root of the problem posed by the radio-protection in contaminated areas.
 +
 +|  |  Category ​ |  Caracteristic time  | Theoretical weigh  |  Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>​ Load  |  Accumulation duration ​ |
 +|  1)  |  nourrisson jusqu'​à 1 an  |  15 days  |  6 kg  |  25 Bq/kg  |  2 month  |
 +|  2)  |  child de 1 à 14 ans  |  30 days  |  40 kg  |  8 Bq/kg  |  5 month  |
 +|  3)  |  Female teenager and adult woman  |  60 days  |  60 kg  |  10 Bq/kg  |  10 month  |
 +|  4)  |  Male teenager ​ |  100 days  |  70 kg  |  13 Bq/kg  |  1 year 1/2  |
 +|  5)  |  homme adulte ​ |  150 j days urs  |  85 kg  |  17 Bq/kg  |  2 years  |
 +|  Tableau -1- bodily cload after après the accumulation duration for an absorption of 10 Bq/jour de Cs<​sub>​137</​sub> ​ ||||||
 +
 +<​tab>​To make it simpler, we just have to remember that eating products contaminated to a certain level results finally in an internal contamination by kg of body wheight equal to the daily absorption of Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>,​ except for the nursling for which it isequal to the double. Moreover, the younger the organism, the faster the contamination and the higher the body contamination.\\
 +<​tab>​So the young child, fed with milk at the limit of 100 Bq/l will have a body contamination of about 200 Bq/kg. Either a child or an adult if somebody has a meal composed of products (potapoes, meat, cereals, etc)at the legal limits, will build up a 200Bq/kg contamination. The researches of the Gomel medical institute, conducted by Y. Bandazhevsky,​ established that the uppur levelbeyond which the children showed significant diseases was 20 Bq/kg. This value cannot be respected by people living in contaminated areas, even they are very vigilant. The courses (Fig -1- hereunder) of two children from the same village help to become concious ot he physical and sociological realities which establish the contamination of everyone :\\
 +{{ :​tchernobylforever:​problemes-04.jpg?​645 |}}
 +;#;//Figure -1- Two courses of about ten years. A dangerous surrounding:​ two opposite behaviours.//;#;​\\
 +
 +<​tab>​To this cultural influence, we must add two important uncertainties.\\
 +<​tab>​The first one is tied to the independence between soil contamination and body contamination. This fact was established in 2003 by a study in 100 villages in the district (oblast) of Gomel. The figure -2- hereafter shows the results of this study :\\
 +{{ :​tchernobylforever:​problemes-05.jpg?​645 |}}
 +;#;//Figure -2- Independence between soil contamination and body contamination.//;#;​\\
 +
 +<​tab>​The second uncertainty is due to the very heterogeneous distribution of the contamination in the environment.\\
 +<​tab>​So concentrations of 175.000 Bq/kg and 268.000 Bq/kg have been found in mushrooms, respectively in 2011 close to the village of Valavsk (Yelsk district) and in 2112 in the Khoïniki district. Generally, rhe berries and the mushrooms are contaminated way beyond the limits, but also all the game and fish. Using the ashes to fertilize the familial kitchen garden causes an important problem, because they present, concentrated,​ the contamination of the wood burnt in winter. The limit of 10.000 BQ/kg is often exceeded. So 63.000 Bq/kg was mesured in a sample withhold in the village of Vyshemir, district of Rechitsa.\\
 +<​tab>​Let’s keep in mind the most important lesson from the data collected by //BELRAD// for more than 20 years : education at school, councelling for the choice of food and the preparation in the kitchen, and administering of //​Vitapect//​ participate to a very significant reduction of the radioactive load of the children. But the global contammination of the environment,​ the intricacy of the transferts on human beings, and way too high legal limits of the dosis contribute to make very often impossible to maintain a body contamination under 20Bq/kg.\\
 +<​tab>​The method used to analyse the contamination by Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>​ apply obviously to Sr<​sub>​90</​sub>,​ except that the caracteristic time forit is 3600 days ! Being that the accumulation is slow, we will eveluate the problem after 7 years, (half of the duration of childhood) of a daily ingestion of 1 Bq of Sr<​sub>​90</​sub>​. It is easily shown that the organism will have accumulated 18000 Bq. Tere is no way to mesure that except by autopsy... because the Sr<​sub>​90</​sub>​ is a pure ß transmitter undetectable with an ordinary counter for gamma radiation. This radioelement will concentrate in the bones and teeth. The risks for the health are the osteosarcoma and leukemia.\\
 +<​tab>//​BELRAD//​ has at its disposal since last year an operational mesurement line for Sr90 in the food. The first results, taking in consideration the official limits and the phenomenon of extended accumulation,​ show that in the areas of the south of Belarus[(The Bragin district, where Vassily Nesterenko mesured an ambient radioactivity of 300 μSv/h during his reconnaissance starting from Minsk during the night of April 28th, 1986, is the one where //BELRAD// detected a real problem with Sr<​sub>​90</​sub>​)],​ where the contamination by this very toxic radioelement is proved, the Sr<​sub>​90</​sub>​ presents a real risk, yet hard to characterize.\\
 +
 +{{ :​tchernobylforever:​problemes-06.jpg?​580 |}}
 +{{ :​tchernobylforever:​problemes-07.jpg?​580 |}}
 +
 +The map hereafter shows Vassily Nesterenko’s journey from Minsk to the confines of Ukraine during the night of April 28th 1986. We can see the name of a few villages and districts mentionned in the text above. The physicist understood immediately that the dimension of the tragedy was like nothing ever seen before.
 +
 +{{ :​tchernobylforever:​problemes-08.jpg |}}
 +
 +He tried to avoid that it turn into a disaster by asking for an immediate evacuation of all the people living closer than 100 km from the plant. Without succeding.
 +
 +
 +~~REFNOTES~~
 +++++
 +
 +==== 2 - Post atomic war situation ====
 +<WRAP centeralign><​fs medium>​Belarus,​ North of Ukraine, South-West of Russia : A situation worst than post-atomic war.</​fs></​WRAP>​\\
 +
 +<​tab>​Since 1945, the « atomic states » have amassed tenth of thousands of atomic and thermo-nuclear bombs, among which several thousands are in a permanent alert status on aboard any kind of missiles.\\
 +<​tab>​Complex surveillance and decision systems were conceived to spy the ennmies, but also to avoid any inadvertent firing. We know anyway that several times, notably in 1983 and 1995, we had a narrow escape from a massive exchange, stroke by mistake, « justified » strokes in return. Each time the common sense of the penultimate in charge, the one who validate for the authorities the reality of the launch of the ennemy’s missiles, saved the world from what we represent ourselves like the ultimate catastrophe. Those quasi activation of an atomic war populate the nighmares of the military and political heads. Who can warrant that self-control is the main virtue of a president elected thanks to demagoguery and money ?
 +++++Read more...|
 +<​tab>​Irony of the History, the radiological conditions created by the fallout of the Chernobyl disaster, and at a slightly smaller degree, not on a value point of view, but relatively to the contaminated surface, of Fukushima, are much worse than those resulting from a said « theater » war between tanks and warplanes fighting with a few hundreds of atomic shells and missiles. What we were expecting from atomic weapons is imposed to us, in a worse manner, by electric power plant, in total opposition to the mission that the //​International Atomic Energy Agency// pretends to perform fro more than half a century :\\
 +//“to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world"​.//​
 +<​WRAP>​
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​pga-01.jpg?​140 |}}<​tab>​First statement. Without taking in consideration the atrocities carried out by the numerous experimentations of A and H bombs, no accident can be blamed on military firing, either by mistake or by accident, one among thousands of missiles on this planet. In the same time, five atomic reactors out of four hundreds have been destroyed and released in the environment huge amounts of artificial radio-elements. The report is  overwhelming :  So far, the civil atom reveal itself as more dangerous, insecure and deleterious than its military equivalent !\\ \\
 +<​tab><​- //30 ms after  the bomb exploded (test“How ", 05/06/52, Nevada Test Facility)//
 +</​WRAP>​
 +<WRAP clear></​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​Second statement about //​prosperity//​. Officially, four hundred billion of dollars have been spent because of the Chernobyl disaster for Belarus and Ukraine, while in these sountries, the average salary is around 400 $ ! Four hundred billion is much more than half of the capitalization of all the atomic power plants in the world ! //​Prosperity//​... or //poverty// ?\\
 +<​tab>​Let’s quantify now what could be perceived as a bad and dishonest exercise of radiologic rhetoric.\\
 +<​tab>​First,​ we must compare the long life fallout of the main radioelements,​ like radioactive isotopes of Cesium and Strontium, dispersed by the atomic explosions or the reactor accidents. However, not to be accused of lack of expertise, we must stress two preleminary remarks :
 +  - The distribution of the fission products following an atomic explosion ​ (fast neutrons) is a little different from the one corresponding to the fission reactionby thermal neutrons in the atomic reactors ;
 +  - The very short life products are an important majority after an atomic explosion while they can only build up in an atomic reactor because of the briefness of their existence[(order of magnitude (http://​fr.wikipedia.org/​wiki/​Fission_nucléaire#​D.C3.A9composition_de_l.27.C3.A9nergie_de_fission) : the total amount of energy provided by the fission products while they are desintegrating represent 6.5% of the energy produced by the explosion. The residual power of a reactor just after its shutdown is between 3 and 5% of its thermal power (the one from the fission reactions, cf. http://​lpsc.in1p3.fr/​collot/​Reacteurs.pdf). The difference, about 2.5% of the power of the bomb, correspond to the energy evacuated in a short and very short period of time by these short life and very short life fission products which cannot build up in an atomic reactor. The potential sanitary damages is extremely high during a few weeks after the explosion.)]. These products with short and very short half-life (notably I<​sub>​131</​sub>,​ I<​sub>​132</​sub>,​ Te<​sub>​132</​sub>​ etc) were the main pollutant in the sadly famous «black rains» of Nagasaki, as well as bomb activation products and transuranic elements. So the organism of the contaminated people received on a very short period of time an enormous amount of desintegration energy. Many died quickly, suffering of the syndrome of acute irradiation;​ The other ones survived, and endured for the rest of their lives. A lithany of ailment that conventional medicine was unable to explain[(Cf. the movie «Blessures atomiques»,​ from Marc Petitjean : http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​zippy/​blessures_atomiques.flv.zip)].
 +<​tab>​On the other hand, the deposits which stay after a few months contain mostly Cesium and Strontium. When it’s about atomic explosion, they are distributed about equally. But that is not the case with the fallout of the reactors, because the strontium compounds are much less volatile than Cesium compounds. So the fallout contains essentially this one, specially over a large area.\\
 +<​tab>​The fallout of Nagasaki atomic explosion have been the subject of several pretty late studies.\\
 +<​tab>​One of them[(https://​www.jstage.jst.go.jp/​result?​item1=4&​word1=Fallout+in+Nishiyama+District%2C+Japan+-+WANMEC2 (Black rain from the Nagasaki artomic bomb))] studied the distribution of Cs137 in a sediment core sample withheld in the middle of the lake Nishiyama, reservoir for Nagasaki, which received directly a part of the black rains, first contamination. With the years passing, another source of contamination was added to this one, brought by the steaming water coming from the side of the mountains. The sedimentation is very active, about 5 to 7 cm a year. The biologic activity causes a vertical diffusion of the pollution.\\
 +<​tab>​The other one [(https://​www.jstage.jst.go.jp/​result?​item1=4&​word1=Fallout+in+Nishiyama+District%2C+Japan+-+WANMEC2 (Aging Effect of 137Cs Obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto Loam Layer) )] exploits core samples extracted from the soft soil (compost) which received the black rains.\\
 +<​tab>​The rough results of these two studies are apparently different from each other. After converting[(only one hypothesis is required, the density of the dry sediments, estimated to 2)] Bk/kg into Bq/​m<​sup>​2</​sup>,​ the first one shows that the sediments core sample indicate an initial pollution of 57 kBk/​m<​sup>​2</​sup>,​ the second one concludes to an initial pollution of 15 kBk/​m<​sup>​2</​sup>​.\\
 +<​tab>​The above remarks, about streaming water and sedimentation suggest an intermediate value for the initial pollution between 25 and 35 kBk/​m<​sup>​2</​sup>​. The result is clear anyway : being that the débris of an atomic ​ explosion are sent to high altitude, the local fallout is relatively small compared to the one created by a reactor accident. The atomic explosions tend to distribute evenly the fallout : everybody will receive a few, more or less, but a few, except for, if the meteorological conditions are favorables, those who will go through the black rains around the « zero point », the hypocenter.\\
 +<​tab>​Lets have a look at the orders of magnitude, summarized in Figure -1-, hereafter.
 +<WRAP centeralign>​
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​pga-02.jpg|}}\\
 +//Fig -1- Test and atomic accidents, orders of magnitude of the fallout Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>​ et Sr<​sub>​90</​sub>//</​WRAP>​
 +
 +<​tab>​Three essential references : the « standard » Hiroshima 1945 and its 100 000 billion Bq of Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>​ and Sr<​sub>​90</​sub>​ ; the total fallout of the atmospheric atomic experiences a bit more than 10 000 times Hiroshima resulting in an average concentration around 2,​500Bq/​m<​sup>​2</​sup>​ of these two elements all over the world ; in the core of a 1,000 MWe atomic reactor, there is more than ten 1,000 times the quantity of Cesium and Strontium the amount produces by the explosion on Hiroshima.\\
 +<​tab>​Using these references, we can impute to Chernobyl a fallout between 500 and 800 times Hiroshima for the cesium, and about 15 to 20 times less for Strontium. Easy to see that we are not far from the worst possible.\\
 +<​tab>​The map of Chernobyl fallout, Figure -2-, (just like its equivalent from Fukushima), demonstrates what we asserted first : the affected populations are in a much worse situation than if they were facing the consequences of an atomic war including hundreds of tanks using atomic shells and bombers dropping atomic missiles.
 +<WRAP centeralign>​
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​pga-03.jpg|}}
 +//Fallout of Chernobyl over Europe with a zoom on the most affected region.//</​WRAP>​
 +
 +<​tab>​All the areas in orange, meaning between 1 and 2 millions of km<​sup>​2</​sup>,​ received as much CS137/​m<​sup>​2</​sup>​ as what was dropped off by the « black rains » on an area of about 30 km<​sup>​2</​sup>​ around the Nishiyama lake ! About 500,000 km<​sup>​2</​sup>​ are even more contaminated than that, up to 30 times more.\\
 +<​tab>​The « //truth is cruel//​ »,​ said a prime minister as a comment for the sinking of the //Rainbow Warrior// by the french services in Aukland harbor on the 5th of July 1985. No French politician reused this quote about the fate of the millions of people forced to live with this pernicious and invisible ennemi who invaded their environment in the « //days after// » april 26th of 1986.
 +
 +~~REFNOTES~~
 +++++
 +==== 3 - Health of the Children ====
 +
 +;<WRAP centeralign><​fs medium>​The sanitary situation, does not stop deteriorating,​ specially for the children.</​fs></​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​In february 1989, the reporter Vladimir Kolinko published in the newspaper //​Sovieteskaia Bielorossiya//​ re-published by //Les Nouvelles de Moscou//, the newspaper of the //​Perestroïka//​ and the //​Glasnost//,​ a long paper about the situation in the north of Ukraine around Narodichi town. Here is what he was writing in the foreword :\\
 +<​tab>//"​At the end of April 1986, the « staff » of the commissions recently deployed were full of people. (…) A red halo and smoke were still visible above the wrecked reactor (…), but the specialists were already having unending discussions and were trying to evaluate the situation. In this commotion, I heard so many things not suppose to com in my journalist ears. Then the information was more and more sifted. Nevertheless I remember many things among which some became clear only recently. For example, certain evaluations made at the beginning."//​
 +++++Read more...|
 +<​tab>​Further in the paper, he reminds us with some mischievousness :\\
 +<​tab>//"​Leonide Illiyne[(Pr. Leonid Iliyn in charge of the radioprotection for USSR(equivalent of Pr Pierre Pellerin) is also a member of the ICRP. )] declared several times after the accident that the relatively small dosis of radiations are totally harmless. But before the accident a book was published under his name, were we can read :​ « Even  the relatively small doses of radiation disturb the conditioned emotional responses, modify the bioelectric activity of the cortex, and trigger biochemical and metabolic alterations of the molecule and cells.»"//​\\
 +tab>This reminds us the testimony of Vassily Nesterenko about the discussions in which he participate during these crucial days (cf. http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles- 2003:​etb-137 ).\\
 +<​tab>​We could expand in a whole book the denial strategy witnessed from its very beginning by V. Kolinko and V. Nesterenko. "//​Chernobyl is a tree growing… //"​ declared once the advisor for ecology of Pdt Eltsine, the academician Alexey Yablokov. He was thinking particularly of the ceaseless deterioration of the health of people living in the contaminated areas. It is a tree growing from its roots sunk in the ground fertilized by the radioactive fallouts from Chernobyl. But it grows too because as one goes along, the denial hardens, like a pernicious fertilizer which would dope the plant. Denying leads to doing nothing, not taking care, not measuring, not evacuate, not spend money, not trying to look for the reasons of all the noticed diseases, and to justify the politics of all these omissions by more denial. It is not only fertilizer, but a cocktail of fertilizers administered by increasing doses to the tree accursed by the consequences of Chernobyl. Vicious spiral : The denial of the risk leads to the denial of the aftermath, then uses it to justify itself, etc…\\
 +<​tab>​Officially,​ the sanitary outcome of the disaster reduces itself to about fifty death due to the acute radiation sickness among the liquidators,​ and a few thousand thyroid cancers "//​easily curable//"​ among the population affected by the radioactive iodine. The rest is said to be indiscernible in the sense that it is not scientifically possible to connect such sickness, such invalidity, such malformation to an effect of the radioactivity of Chernobyl. The spectacular differences between before and after Chernobyl, underlined by epidemiological studies, apparently do not ask any question to the official authorities of the radio-protection and of the science of radiation[(It’s about UNSCEAR, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiations, created in 1955, and the //ICRP//, International Commission of Radiological Protection, a « caritative » association of british right created in 1950 a cluster of different pre-existing associations. The recommendations of the CIPR lean on the reports of the UNSCEAR and are used as uncontested references for WHO, IAAE, EURATOM and all the national legislations.)]. Chernobyl for example, occupies a barely visible place (by quoting a reference, that’s all) in the general publication //​Recommendations No 103// (2007) from the //ICRP//, worldwide authority about radio-protection… Epidemiology seems to be inappropriate for an evaluation of the effects of the radioactive pollution on a large population. Let’s be convinced !\\
 +<​tab>​Before talking about the fate of the children due to the radioactivity,​ we must recall the destiny of the liquidators,​ branded in their flesh[(cf. the movie Le Sacrifice by E. Andreoli et W. Tchertkoff : http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​zippy/​Le_sacrifice.flv.zip)],​ and affected in their descent. They were between 800,000 and a million. The conditions didn’t cease to evolve. The forced short single interventions during the first weeks when the radioactivity was at its highest. Then the stays were stretched out, following the progressive decrease of the risk; and finally the context became close to the one which is usual for the employees authorized to work under radiations in the atomic industry.\\
 +<​tab>​Here is the sequence of decisions aiming at establishing a secrecy as strict as possible :
 +  * It is forbidden to the troopers who worked on the most dangerous assignments during may 1986 total aboutit to anybody, even to their family ;
 +  * Probably to better the statistics on the consequences of the accident, only the stays in Chernobyl which occurred after June 13th 1986 were mentioned on the service records ;
 +  * The establishment of a liquidation commission which has the exclusivity on all the informations about the consequences of the accident.
 +  * As if it was not enough, on June 27th 1987, the health ministry of USSR send to the civilian doctors an order imposing « //the secret on the treatments implemented and the results of the doses measurements during the liquidation of the tragedy//​ » ;
 +  * Then, on July 8th 1987, the medical military commission took its turn to forbid the military doctors from « mentioning the affectation to work on the liquidation of the consequences of the accident, and the total dose of irradiation if it does not reach the level of the radiation sickness (more than 200 rad, equivalent to 2 Sv).
 +<​tab>​So the dices are loaded from the very beginning. Besides we know that the conditions of measurement and recording of the received radioactive doses are in such circumstances unreliable, as said by several liquidators,​ even if they were supposed, by contract, to say nothing. All these interdictions and arrangements with the radio-protection of the liquidators make it almost impossible to establish sturdy links between doses and effects.\\
 +<​tab>​Partial studies, apparently elaborate, were published, whose poorly convincing conclusions would need explanations,​ way too long to be treated here. Let’s examine the very accurate global result brought in, in 2006, twenty years later, by the representative of the health ministry of Ukraine, the Dr Angelina Nyagu, during the Munich congress[(http://​www.physiciansofchernobyl.org.ua/​eng/​Docs/​33_Nyagu_.ppt)] (she actualized this paper to present it in Berlin, 2011, in the name of the Ukrainian association « Doctors from Chernobyl[( http://​www.chernobylcongress.org/​fileadmin/​user_upload/​pdfs/​nyagu.pdf)]»). Let us retain from the first one, the one from 2006, the data we need to establish this awful table :
 +<WRAP centeralign>​{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​sde-01.jpg|}}</​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​The rate of invalidity among the survivors increases non-stop, and tripled in 10 years. We can imagine that the disabled are among the first ones to decease, and that from the ones numbered in 1997, rares are the ones still alive in 2006. For one die young after being a liquidator. The reference book « //​Chernobyl:​ Consequences of the Catastrophe for People end the Environment//​ » gives about it a very explicit idea for three groups well identified and homogeneous :
 +<WRAP centeralign>​{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​sde-02.jpg|}}</​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​About these numbers, not a word in the official reports. So there is no way to link them to the passing by Chernobyl of those who are concerned… Nevertheless,​ the last Ukrainian data notice that only 5% of the liquidators are in good health, which does not mean that they will stay that way. Chernobyl war mobilized the equivalent of several armies. The miracle, according to the radioprotection instances, resides in that this war could have been the prototype of an atomic war « zero death ».\\
 +<​tab>​Most of the liquidators were young, even very young men (conscripts). The survivors who did not feel sick decided to have children. The demographic statistics from the worldwide Bank reveal that disturbing anomalies in the birthrate curves in the countries barely affected by the accident fallout, but who sent a large number of liquidators compared to their population, Latvia and and Lithuania. Some countries more affecte by the fallout, like Sweden, Finland and Norway, has not been affected as much. The death of children as a bonus[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2013:​etb-131 also published by Mediapart.)] ? The question stays non answered. The health condition of the liquidator’s children pleads for an affirmative answer : Its is even worse than the condition of the children from the contaminated areas ; Their malformation rate is also very high, on certain year up to five to six times  than in the general population… where it doubled between 1986 and 2006. All of that has no link to Chernobyl, of course, according to the official international reports !\\
 +<​tab>​We saw in Chapter 1 that the contamination by Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>​ is the main source of irradiation of the children in Belarus. The same statement is valid for the North of Ukraine and the south-west of Russia, where the repartition of the radioactive pollution is similar.\\
 +<​tab>​We will hereafter, with the help of some numbers figured give an idea that some will consider as cold and abstract of the sanitary drama which is played in these areas for more than a quarter of a century. The reader to empathize with each of those hundreds of thousands of families whose children health is a constant source of anxiety, with results in school often way under the average, in a word, with a future irremediably burdened. Let’s think too about those less numerous which have the responsibility of a children affected by a malformation or a disabling sickness. The general drama is a sum of all these individual tragedies. The general vision is of an unheard disaster. A pending catastrophe.\\
 +<​tab>​Globally,​ reintroduce the subject with the progression of the proportion of the children considered as in good healt or sick by the general pediatric medicine. The figure - 1 - applies to the North of Ukraine as well as to Belarus, a country much more affected by the initial cloud loaded with radioactive iodine than shown by the map of the contamination by Cesium the concentration of which has been determined by the meteorological conditions : Where it did not rain, the density of the deposit stayed moderate.\\
 +<WRAP centeralign>​{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​sde_03_en.jpg|}}</​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​Extrapolated till 1985, the curves reach the normal levels noted before Chernobyl by the statistics of the Health Ministry of Belarus : 80 to 85 % of the children where in good health then. The one year plateau in this disastrous evolution comes after the revelation of the sanitary consequences of the accident in 1989, and shows the setup of the protection measures simultaneously by the administration and independent initiatives. This protection politic loosened after the disintegration of the USSR, and Chernobyl case, which was used by the separatist movements fro Ukraine and Belarus was relegated, while the fight for the power was dominating anything else.\\
 +<​tab>​The more specific informations must be placed in this context that they depict with the few examples hereafter[(For a more exhaustive information on this point, read the synthesis of Pr Michel Fernex here :
 +http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2012:​etb-09)].\\
 +<​tab>​The thyroid cancer increased by 15 and 56 between before and after the accident, for the children born respectively before and after the accident. So the exposition to low doses in utero multiplies the risk by about four. The comparison has been made on two periods, 1970-1990 and 1990-2005, knowing that the latency period if about 4 years. It is the only consequence acknowledged,​ late, by the international radio-protection.\\
 +<​tab>​The rate of chromosomic aberrations of the child doubles when the in utero exposition increases from 10 to 350 mSv.  The rate of the stable aberrations triples (Stepanova 2006).\\
 +<​tab>​The //IQ// curve of a population of children'​s shifted by 10, which is an important reduction of the intellectual faculties. This reduction is more notable for what is called oral //IQ//.\\
 +<​tab>​A swedish study confirm this effect in the areas in Sweden which received the Chernobyl fallout[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​extra/​pdf-divers/​telecharge.php?​pdf=etb-162_en.pdf and
 +http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​extra/​pdf-divers/​telecharge.php?​pdf=etb-162_fr.pdf)].\\
 +<​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​The table hereafter shows that the health deterioration affects even the less exposed groups :
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​sde-04.jpg |}}\\ \\ \\ <​tab>​The evolution recorded during five years by the E.E. pediatrics is confirmed by the Ukrainian statistics and follow the tendency ​ shown in the figure - 1 - .\\
 +<​tab>​The increase of the number of the auto-immune Hashimoto thyroiditis must be stressed. This sickness is as serious as the Thyroid cancer.\\
 +<​tab>​These data cannot be linked to the received doses or records of body contamination. This point will be examined later.
 +</​WRAP>​
 +<WRAP clear></​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​In May 2012, Dr Galina Bandazhevkaya made a talk[(Cf : http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2012:​etb-123.)] summarized ​ by the following diagrams. it was presented during the forum on low doses in Geneva on May 12th 2012[(http://​independentwho.org/​media/​Documents_Autres/​Actes_forum_IW_mai2012_French.pdf)]. It is about the recent official ​ epidemiological data published by the government of Belarus. Some to them concern the entire population, others ​ are about  more broke up groups.
 +<WRAP centeralign>​
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​sde-05.jpg?​600|}}</​WRAP>​
 +<​tab>​We must remember that Belarus has the highest rate of cancers among all the republics of the ex-USSR, the noticeable differences on the primary disorders according to the contamination of the corresponding areas, the increase of the congenital anomalies and the cardiovascular sickness…\\
 +<​tab>​Some will be surprised by the fact that official reports, including the well known compilation written by the //Chernobyl Forum// between 2002 and 2005, and published under the sign of all the UN agencies and the three states most affected, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, do not notice any link between Chernobyl and the observations on the field some excerpts of which are quoted here above… except for , and with emphasis, the question of the thyroid cancers.\\
 +<​tab>​But without accurate dosimetric data, it is in fact impossible to establish any figured correlation. Thus, in Belarus, for example, it is forbidden to the independent organisation which systematically takes body contamination measurement for twenty years, //BELRAD//, to gather medical data… and the hospitals do not mesure the radioactivity of the ill children. If it is not deliberate, they scientific disaster on the long term is useful. It allows to maintain without batting an eyelid that Chernobyl had no measurable effect ​ on the public health, except for a spectacular increase of the thyroid cancers. But even on this point, some fog could not hurt : in its Recommendations No 103 of 2007, the only reference to Chernobyl ​ retained by the //ICRP// is an article dedicated to the uncertainty concerning the dosimetry of the people affected by this kind of cancer. If Chernobyl is not exculpated, the doubt about its responsibility is clearly suggested !
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +~~REFNOTES~~
 +++++
 +
 +==== 4 - History of BELRAD ====
 +<WRAP centeralign><​fs medium>A look at //​BELRAD//'​s ​ history : its gestation ; its irrepleceable role.</​fs></​WRAP>​
 +
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​hb-01.jpg?​200 |}}<​tab>​The very existence of the Institute for radioprotection //BELRAD// appears as a mostly improbable fact in Chernobyl'​s history.\\
 +<​tab>​Who could possibly have imagined that the most senior person in charge of a strategic military program would side with the liquidators on the spot trying to extinguish Chernobyl'​s blasted reactor'​s fire, putting his own health at stake ? That he would have challenged this crisis'​ management by national authorities and would not resign himself despite their decision not to follow his advice ? That he would ask his colleagues to put aside their ongoing researches to draw a map of radioactive fallout in Belarus as quickly as possible instead, and would finally be granted funds to mass-produce precise radiation counters ? And that in fine, he would dedicate his life exclusively to protecting populations in contaminated areas ? No reaction of this type has been witnessed in Japan after Fukushima, and let us try to imagine what would happen in France in case such  a catastrophe would occur !
 +++++Read more...|
 +<​tab>​And yet, such was indeed the path followed by Vassily Nesterenko'​s after Chernobyl'​s accident. In 2003, he  narrated ​ this particulat period of his life in a sober manner without a trace of pathos in a tale which is probably the first  [[base_documentaire:​articles-2003:​etb-137|document we would recommend to read]].\\
 +<​tab>​It should be born in mind that in the //​Glasnost//​ and //​Perestroika//​ context undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachov, many unthought of reactions became possible. Hierarchical frames were in a phase of disruption, a spirit of initiative which had been subdued during three generations suddenly found a suitable context and, last but not least, society was still permeated with a sense of primacy of general interest. These specific reasons explain the spontaneous reaction of scientists, no matter where they were active in the Soviet Union. The Army was of course mobilized in the « battle of Chernobyl » but in the most ctirical moments, high-ranking persons in charge of nuclear safety as well, such as the academic Valery Legassov and his colleagues, high-ranking nuclear physicists such as Evgeny Velikhov (scientific counsellor of Mikhail Gorbachov) etc…\\
 +<​tab>​These highly visible figures did not flee their responsibilities. Because they felt that their fatherland, Russia, was in danger.\\
 +<​tab>​Scientists which had no direct link with the unclear industry or with nuclear physics also decided to take action themselves even when it clearly ​ meant  coming close to danger, such as Vladimir Chernoussenko,​ a mathematician who coordinated a team of  1,500 persons, losing ​ his health in the process.\\
 +<​tab>​After this most acute phasis, the most noteworthy fact is that that a large number of academics, lecturers, directors of institutes or of laboratories contributed their help on the spot in contaminated areas. Let us mention a few of them :
 +  - Dmitro Grodzinsky[(he wrote the foreword of Alexey Yablokov'​s,​Vassliy Nesterenko & Alexey Nesternko'​s book quoted in footnote N°6, Chapter 3)], who lead some researches on the real impact of contaminating agents in the environment on human beings, thus questionning the model used by the //ICRP// ;
 +  - Evgeny Konoplya, an academic and radiobiologist from Belarus (recently deceased) who concentrated his researches on the charactization of body contaminations ;
 +  - so many others, who published thousands of scientific and medical studies which have not been listed among the selected references quoted by the UNSCEAR.
 +  - teams of searchers directed by the latter, spread over territories rangeing from the forbidden zone to the least contaminated areas.
 +<​tab>​Pr Rosa Goncharova Director of the //​Laboratory of Genetical Safety of the Genetics & Cystology Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus// in Minsk, emerges as one of the most eminent emblems of this movement. Back in 1986, she obtained some credits to launch a long-time research on the effects of Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>​ on genomic instability,​ a pionner study which she lead during 11 years over 22 generations of reddish voles. The conclusions she was able to derive from this study were quite worrying : even though radioactivity decreases, genetic instability increases from generation to generation. Sadly, credits were cut in 1998, so she was not able to continue this study.\\
 +<​tab>​Nevertheless,​ in this partcular context, there was one and only Vassily Nesterenko. He resigned from an institution,​ faced lack of understanding and even hostility from part of the establishment,​ devoted all his personal energy, his intelligence and his numerous competences to protecting the most vulnerable people, children, because this was (and remains) the top priority. He took these risks alltogether,​ being the only high-level « technocrat » in this case. The only one who dared it.\\
 +<​tab>​The testimony written by Wladimir Tchertkoff[(partly derived from excerpts of his book «The crime of Chernobyl»\\ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=bibliographie&​s[]=crime#​le_crime_de_tchernobyl_le_goulag_nucleaire )] in Chernobyl Forever sheds some additionnal light on the oustanding human adventure of Vassily Nesterenko after Chernobyl, without any safety net.\\
 +<​tab>​What has //BELRAD// been up to ? In which regards can //BELRAD// be considered irreplaceable and indispensable ?\\
 +<​tab>​Since 2003, when the above quoted testimony was written, activities of the Institute //BELRAD// have been continuing , making the best of its limited funds and struggling against various constraints which have been imposed by the authorities of Belarus.\\
 +<​tab>​The factual data below provide a brief sumary of  the years 2003 and 2005 (extended version in english[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2003:​etb-137)] of the previous version) of Vassily Nesterenko'​s activity and of the events which lead — in the end — to the creation of //​BELRAD//​.\\
 +<​tab>​From April 28 to September 1986 : assessment of the radiological situation, flying over the Chernobyl ​ reactor on fire[(when V. Nesterenko flew above the burning reactor, the radiation level iside the helicopter was of 3 to 4 Sv/hour, a level at which death is expected after 1h30 hours.)] to evaluate the radiological risk incurred by liquidators,​ interpellation of soviet authorities (of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, of the Ministries of Health and of Agriculture,​ and of the Hydro-meteorological Service, lead by Yuri Israel, who also happened to be Chief of the Commission of Liquidation of the Chernobyl accident) and of the Government of Belarus to try and obtain a distribution of iodine tablets and a preventive general evacuation within a distance of 100 km around Chernobyl , mapping of contaminated zones (cesium, strontium, plutonium). The Government did transmit the above mentionned maps to the above listed soviet authorities. But none of preventive steps recommended by V. Nesterenko, although also supported by other scientists, were implemented,​ except for the complete evacuation within a 30 km area surrounding the reactor (beginning of May), the removing of several houdred thousands of children from the region of Gomel (between May and September), and the additional evacuation of 24,600 persons (in September) affected to radioactive levels of more than 50 µSv/h, ... i.e. 0,44 Sv/year.\\
 +<​tab>​The request to evacuate 50 villages near Mogilyov[(within a partial list of 27 out of 50 villages, 11 of them were fially burried so as to make any attemps to re-setlle in them impossible.)] in the beginning of 1987 was rejected and led to the dismissal (in March 1987) of N. Borisevich, President of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus and, in July 1987, of V. Nesterenko from official Party ruling bodies.\\
 +<​tab>​During this period, Nesterenko sent an equivalent of 4 volumes (of 250 pages each) of notes, letters, reports and requests to the various relevant authorities. But all the topics which had some links which Chernobyl and its consequences remained covered up and secret until the Spring 1989.\\
 +<​tab>​In the beginning of 1989, the sanitary situation of the ill cattle as well as the worsening condition of children'​s health became so scandalous, that they finally lead to unseal these confidential facts and to a publication of  maps showing the extend of radioactive pollution in the //Pravda//, as well as to the publication (in 1990) in the journal //​Rodnik//​[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-1990:​etb-164)] of part of the documents gathered by V. Nesterenko. They show an overwelming responsibility of all the State bodies involved in the management of the Chernobyl crisis. Their very must have been perceived as a snub by many ruling leaders.\\
 +<​tab>​This sequence proves that Nesterenko had become the most trustworthy person to impose a program of radioprotection for Belarus. Having lost consideration for the irresponsible way in which they had managed the crisis, politicians were compelled to provide him with relevant authorizations to undertake the actions he was asking to implement, and were also compelled to give him at least some funds to start their implementation.\\
 +<​tab>​Nevertheless,​ Nesterenko could not be unconscious that, being a providential man who had emerged due to the discredit of those who had rebuffed his wanings and demands, he had thus become a target which these men would sooner or later aim at. He probably believed that his adversaries were only obtuse civil servants and discredited politicians,​ which would leave him some time to consolidate his own position. He was not aware that in the hours following the official announcement of the nuclear blast, on April 28th, 1986, the world'​s highest-ranking authorities in charge of radioprotection had avised soviet authorities — more so, because of a  sheer sense of responsibility,​ so they put it — to only request people not to drink rainwater and to monitor the radioactivity level in food. These persons might have been concerned as well, in case the consequences of their advices would have come to be exposed. Their interest, surely, was not that the strategy of denial which they were setting up so that it could not be questionned,​ could be by-passed by the indubitable data which V. Nesterenko would not fail to gather. A man who had already proved his competence, his braveness, his determination and his absolute selflessness. Therefore, a man who could prove extremely dangerous, if left acting freely.\\
 +<​tab>​Nesterenko certainly did not expect either that he would arouse jealousy from a range of « well-intentioned » opportunist people who would take opportunity of Chernobyl to promote themselves and expose themselves on the humanitary forefront. They, too, implacably discredited his work, even post-mortem when they were struggling to get a foothold on the Japanese ground after Fukushima, when //​BELRAD//'​s help and know-how were requested, in the first days after March 11th, 2011.\\
 +<​tab>​By contrast, Nesterenko was acutely aware of economical constraints,​ as he wrote in his accounts in 2003 and 2005. He knew that the state of Belarus did not have sufficient economical ressources to ensure an efficient protection of all the contaminated unevacuated areas on the long run.\\
 +<​tab>​He suggested that the USSR, who was after all responsible of the disaster, should bear induced costs at least partially, and that the International Community should also contribute its help. Which it did indeed in following the advice of high-ranking people in charge of radioprotection and of their auxiliary colleagues such as the //CEPN// (a joint assocation of 4 members : //EDF//, //AREVA//, //CEA//, //IRSN//) which has its headquarters in the headquarters'​ building of the //CEA//, in Fontenay-aux-Roses,​ near Paris. Moreover, his Director happens to be President of the //N°IV Committee// of the //ICRP//, in charge of formulating the recommandations of the Commission !\\
 +<​tab>​The doctrine promoted by the //ICRP// is based on optimization,​ i.e. spending less immediately with the expectation of a supposed equivalent sanitary benefit in the future ... Spending as less as possible has always been a chief concern of the European Commission whenever it decides to intervene. Their //ETHOS// and //CORE// projects stretched from 1996 to 2003. These were mainly psycho-cultural programs monitored by the //CEPN//, implemented by sociologists and psychiatrists obviously lying in wait for any contract, who were sent wherever it had been decided that //BELRAD// should be supplanted.\\
 +<​tab>​Let'​s go back to the phasis when secret was alleviated. Some developments occured indeed : addittionnal evacuations were decided (140,000 more persons, between 1990 and 1993), and 200,000 more liquidators were appealed to.\\
 +<​tab>​300 radiameters designed for the measurement of food radiation levels were produced in Minsk and 4,000 of a slightly different type were provided by Russia.\\
 +<​tab>​At Spring 1989, Andrei Sakharov, Anatoly Karpov and A. Adamovich got in touch with Vassily Nesterenko and suggested that they should ​ create an institute of radioprotection which should be independent from the Government : //BELRAD//. V. Kebish, head of the Republic of Belarus also gave his assentment to this project. Firstly, a scientific and practical center of radioprotection named « //​Radiometer//​ » was created, aiming at producing high-qualiity radiameters,​ but also at educating and at informing the general public about radioprotection ; at the same time, a non-governmental office of measurement of radioactive levels in food was set up in regions contaminated by fallouts from Chernobyl. Even the //Supreme Soviet//'​s approval was seeked for. Later on, around 1990, //​Radiometer//​ was re-shaped into a private enterprise which Vassily Nesterenko named //Institute of Protection against Radiations BELRAD//.\\
 +<​tab>//​BELRAD//​ developed a radiameter named //Sosna// (« pines »[(The nuclear center where Nesterenko led the PAMIR project to create ​ a mobile powerplant was based in Sosny, near Minsk. « Sosny » (« pines »),​ in russian, is the plural form of «  pine » (this name is not preceded by any article).)]) of which 300,000 were produced in 3 plants. It also designed and built more than 1,000 //RUG-92// precision radiameters for the Minstry of Agriculture and for the Union of Belarus'​ cooperatives.\\
 +<​tab>​In 1989, the //​Comchernobyl//​ (Chernobyl Committee, a governmental entity) entrusted //​Radiometer//​ to create and manage a network of local //Local Centers of Radiation Control (LCRC)//. Between 1990 and 1992, //BELRAD// created and set up 370 //LCRC//s. The first 40 of them were financed by Anatoly Karpov'​s foundation. At that point in time, the Comchernobyl provided funds for the production of these equipments and of providing the general public with the data gathered by the (LCRCs). That was back then, when funds were still available...\\
 +<​tab>​Between 1990 and 1996, Nesterenko refined //​BELRAD//'​s methodology.\\
 +<​tab>​Despite specifically raising families'​ and farmers'​ awareness, telling them the do's and dont's and measuring radioactivity in most of the food, it appeared that body contamination could still remain very high.\\
 +<​tab>​In close cooperation with the //Medical Institute of Gomel// led by Yuri Bandajevsky,​ Nesterenko noticed that these contamination levels were often well above the 50 Bq/Kg, a rate at which Bandajevsky recorded a frequent worsening of the children'​s health, as the initial shock due to the I<​sub>​131</​sub>​ cloud had made them radio-sensible.\\
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​hb-02.jpg?​300 |}}<​tab>​He created mobile laboratories including anthropogammametric armchairs and set up an intensive programm of measurement of body-radiation levels, especially in children, mainly visiting schools. Meanwhile, he also continued to research on the means of acceleration of the elimination of ingested radioelements and of protection against free-radicals generated by ionizing radiations.\\
 +<​tab>​In 1997, these avaluations led him to distribute the food-additive //​Yablopekt//,​ which had just received its official certification by the Ministry of Health of Belarus.\\
 +<​tab>​The ​ next  year,  he was   ​granted ​ official authorization to launch the production in Belarus of a similar compound by President Lukashenko.[(he bought 7 ad hoc armchairs, made in the Ukraine. They are still being used today and have proven cheeper and more reliable than most equipments which are available at all. Their calibration is being checked yearly by using a radioactive dummy. )][(this text is only a brief summary of //​BELRAD//'​s ​ very dense Bulletin N°28  (2005) :\\ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2005:​etb-115)]\\
 +<​tab>​As the laboratory which had been contacted for this project remained passive, Nesterenko and a German laboratory developed a food supplement which is now well-knoan under the name of //​Vitapect//​ and distributed worldwide. This was also the year[(in December 1990, Y. Bandajevsky was sentenced to 8 years prison under the charge of corruption. All the most « disturbing » people were silenced step by step.)] when numerous acts of intimidation started against //BELRAD//, partly organized by a German radiotherapist who would abviously have liked to hold some kind of exclusivity right  in Belarus and did not welcome //​BELRAD//'​s reputation and know-how : Edmund Lengfelder[(Taking the opportunity of the accident of Chernobyl to reinforce his own reputation, he founded the //Otto Hug Institute// (NB : Otto Hug himself had been a member of the //ICRP//) and offered his services to treat thyroidis cancers. A leading figure, Edmund Lengfelder receives funds from several douzens of firms , political institutions and associations. In order to remain in the good favors of the leaders of these countries, he went as far as to approve the war led by Vladimir Putin in Georgia, and, as if he had been officially commissioned by the European Committee which watched these elections, he prclaimed the elections of December 2010 in Belarus « sincere » and merciless condemned the opponents'​ demonstrations. He played an active and paid role in the European //CORE// and //ETHOS// programs, which aimed at getting rid of //​BELRAD//​.)].
 +<​tab>​Nesterenko'​s outspoken criticism against the legal limits set for contamination — which he (and rightly so) considered too high (see Chapter 1 for detailed figures) — certainly irritated the authorities including the President. That was indeed too much !\\
 +<​tab>​Bullying and threats were then further added to drastic reductions in provided funds.\\
 +<​tab>​In 2003, only 56 //LCRC//s remained ; 19 in 2005 ; and a dozen in 2014[(As a matter of fact 9, financed by an NGO. No funds are provided for an independent monitoring of radioactivity. Children in these schools have been taught how to operate these instruments,​ thus being involved in the radioprotection of their own villages themselves.)].\\
 +<​tab>​The most dangerous step taken against //BELRAD// followed a vicious attack of Edmund Lengfelder against Vassily Nesterenko, which he accused of being paid by the nuclear industry in a report bearing the label //Otto Hug Institute// (published in January 2007). On January 25th, 2007, following ​ Vassily Nesterenko'​s refusal to take the charge of building the first belorussian nuclear plant[(The very project of a byelorussian NPP started after V. Nesternko'​s death in August 2008. Moscow finances and builds. The construction has begun last year (2013).)], President Lukashenko issued the following ukaz : **«All necessary steps should be taken in order to bring the unipersonal firm « Institute of Radioprotection //​BELRAD//​ » to justice (...) as well as people guilty of tolerance towards infrigements commited by the latter enterprise ...»**.\\
 +<​tab>​V. Nesterenko threw all of his personnal energy into this battle, but it proved to be the last one : exhausted, he deceased the next year.\\
 +<​tab>​Since we had exposed his wrongdoings after he tried to offer his services in Japan in 2011 (where he also continued to discredit //​BELRAD//'​s action), his text written in January 2007 was deleted from the data-base of the //Otto Hug Institute//​. This is why we deided to include it on the data-base of our site (2007), also publishing his valuable comments[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2007:​etb-165)] as so many bonuses.\\
 +<​tab>​The work //BELRAD// has accomplished to this day is immense and unique. **The drastic reduction of the funds it receives, which make it dependent on the sole private donations from abroad to survive** (the last public funds were granted in 2005, by the Japanese Embassy in Minsk) compelled the institue to select its interventions very carefully.\\
 +<​tab>​Therefore,​ two //ATLASES// (1 & 2)[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2010:​etb-065)] of body contamination levels in children in contaminated areas were drawn, which were completed in 2007 ; this allows //BELRAD// to focus on the most contaminated villages.\\
 +<​tab>​During the last years, about 25,000 children have been monitored twice a year to check their body radioactivity. Those for which it is requested receive a box of //​Vitapect//​ for a one-month treatment. This figure of 25,000 equates approximately 8% of all the children living in contaminated regions.\\
 +<​tab>​Over 18 years, 460,000 measurement results have been collected and archived, which makes //​BELRAD//'​s data-base a one-of-a-kind source worldwide. 400,000 measurements of contaminated food samples have also been collected and archived.\\
 +<​tab>​A leaflet about radioprotection is being handed out since 2003. Its Japanese version was a best-seller when it was published in Japan in 2011. A French version is now available, named «//Après l'​accident atomique//​»[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=bibliographie#​apres_l_accident_atomique_guide_pratique_d_une_radioprotection_efficace)]. English, German and Norwegian versions have just been made available and published in 2013 and 2014.\\
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​hb-03.jpg?​300 |}}<​tab>​From end of March 2011, //BELRAD// took side with Japanese scientists and associations. As a symbol, the first gesture was the sending of 2 boxes of //​Vitapect//​. Since then, we are in touch on a constant ​ and mutual basis (visits on the spot of journalists,​ scientists, doctors, activists, both in Minsk and in Japan). The //BELRAD// Institute not only provides guidelines for action in Japan, but also transmits the experience it gathered and sound information so as to resist disinformation attempts it might be submitted to by high-raking authorities in charge of radioprotection,​ as well as to the inappropriate steps taken by the Japanese government.\\
 +<​tab>​Since slightly more than a year, the Institute is confronted with an economical context in which the main landmark has been a constant increase in the cost of living prices and of taxes.\\
 +
 +<​tab>​These are, in fact, the direct consequence of a promisemade by President Lukashenko while he was campaigning to increase the loan of all state employees. Three //BELRAD// employees (i.e 10% of the total staff) decided to quit as they could no longer make both ends meet. Therefore, we must quickly refill the coffers of the Institute, to allow its main financial and moral sponsor — the association //Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus// — to develop its activity in order to secure //​BELRAD//'​s future, as it did in request of Vassily Nesterenko when the Institute was on the edge to enter a phasis of « financial collap­sus ».
 +
 +
 +~~REFNOTES~~
 +++++
 +==== 5 - ETB and BELRAD ====
 +<WRAP centeralign><​fs medium>//​Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus// and //BELRAD// : a long united progress.</​fs></​WRAP>​
 +
 +<​tab>​Solange Fernex, forever ecologist and European deputy and her husband Michel Fernex, a field ecologist, ornithology enthusiast and professor in Bâle University, got caught up in Chernobyl on april 28 1986, and they are not the only ones. Taking part since 1993 in numerous meetings with physicians, liquidators and scientists of all fields, they met Vassily Nesterenko, and discovered //BELRAD// institute during a congress in 1995.
 +<WRAP centeralign>​{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​etbb-01.jpg?​400|}}</​WRAP>​
 +++++Read more...|
 +<​tab>​Michel Fernex closely followed all the researches made by Vassily Nesterenko to validate the use of pectin mixed with vitamins and antioxidants (protection against free radicals pro ducted in the body by the ionizing radiation and some chemicals toxins). All the reproaches made to this food supplement, based on ignorance or ill will (Lengfelder again…), have been methodically swept[(Cf note 8 chapter 4.)].\\
 +<​tab>​The contacts have been continuous since. It is not bilateral contacts, but intenses exchanges with about all scientists, physicians, researchers,​ journalists ​ from ex-USSR and beyond engaged in studying the human and ecologic damages due to Chernobyl and the ways of minimizing them. We cannot count the number of conferences and working groups that they organized or in which they took part. Al these meetings were a good opportunity for establishing a working bond with the team of swiss television directed by the director Wladimir Tchertkoff[(Movies produced with Emanuela Andreoli : "Nous de Tchernobyl"​ - 54', TSI 1991 ; "Le piège atomique"​ - 47', TSI 1999 ; "Youri et Galina Bandajevsky"​ - 30', 2000 ; "Le sacrifice"​ - 24', Feldat Film 2003 ; "​Controverses Nucléaires"​ - 50', Feldat Film 2004 ; "​Vassili Nesterenko"​ -19', Feldat Film 2008. They can be seen on or downloaded from the //ETB// Web site.)].\\
 +<​tab>​The first large collective international action, to which Solange Fernex brought a major contribution,​ took place in Vienna, from 12th to 15th of april 1996. It was the session of the //Permanent tribunal of the people// dedicated to the environmental and sanitary implications of the catastrophe,​ and for the human rights. The coordinator of this noteworthy venture was the irish woman Adi Roche, executive director of the //Chernobyl Children’s Project//. The record of the session have been published in English, French[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-1996:​etb-097)],​ German, Italian, Spanish, Russion, and for two years in Japanese.\\
 +<​tab>​This very short and too partial introduction which leaves so many eminent people and so many essential contributions in the background reminds us that the great collective enterprises cannot appear spontaneously. They can only be created after a long gestation during which people meet, learn each other, become confident andstart to work together. The work start on a small scale,then come to maturity a bit at a time. When required by the events, these people give their best. Then there is a selection, and those who are not motivated enough stay out.\\
 +<​tab>​Our organizations,​ //BELRAD// and //ETB// strengthen each other by the way of these long lasting collaborations. They are the result of an historical process, and so irreversible. If one fails and ceases to honor its commitments,​ then the other one will be affected up to the point that it could disappear. Other collateral damages will occur like a waterfall, hurting the partners from both of them. It would be huge loss for the children affected by Chernobyl.\\
 +<​tab>​So those who established //Enfants de Tchernobyl Belarus// (//ETB//) on April 27th 2001 knew each others for half a dozen of years and knew that they were sharing the same conviction : Chernobyl had changed the course of their life. They were already dedicating the best of their experience and their energy to this conviction. They were certain too that this subject required the respect of the higher intellectual obligation and at the same time humility towards the huge human damages that they had to understand and to minimize. They are bound by an endless quest to intent to fight the denial spread by the apostles of the lie and concealment,​ and also the complacency of the believers in this mix of arrogance, laziness and stupidity that they show so often.\\
 +
 +<boi frame-white 310px left>
 +{{popup>:​tchernobylforever:​etbb-03.jpg?​300}}\\ <​html><​center><​p style="​font-size:​80%;">​Exhibition organised by the action group IndependentWHO at the Trocadéro (april 24th to 26th 2010)</​p></​center></​html></​boi><​tab>​Solange Fernex undertook a symbolic, still topical action : gathering portraits (generally simple identity photos in black and white) of a large number of dead liquidators. More than a thousand have been brought together, most of them enlarged and set up on stands for public exhibition. Names, first names, dates of birth and death are mentionned. Easy to see how many were still young when they died. Anyone who saw exhibitions of these portraits was very upset when leaving.\\
 +<​tab>​The situation became worse at the end of the 90s. The credits allocated by the government of Belarus to //BELRAD// tended towards zero ; the interventions of international agencies of radiation protection and odd characters like Lengfelder undermined public but also sometimes ​    ​private support from abroad ; the fruitful collaboration with Youry Bandazhevsky,​ Galina Bandazhevskaya and their teams were brutally aborted with the arrest and condemnation for corruption of the first one, director of the //Medical Institute of Gomel//​[(Part of Y. Bandazhevsky works has been published thanks to on initiative of //BELRAD//. Cf. electronic version at :\\ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​extra/​pdf-divers/​telecharge.php?​pdf=etb-94.pdf)]. The deadly controversies trying to discredit the method of //BELRAD// and the use of //​Vitapect//​ were in full swing. ETHOS[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2003:​etb-050\\ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2013:​etb-133\\ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2013:​etb-132)] program, backeed by the European Community was on route in an area of Belarus. Its only palpable result, besides its obvious sanitary failure, was to sideline //​BELRAD//​.\\
 +<​tab>​At the beggining of the 21st century //BELRAD// was reaching the bottom. Vassily Nesterenko was asking for help to all of his friends abroad. In France, Solange, Michel and Etienne Fernex, Wladimir Tchertkoff and Galia Ackerman gathered to create //ETB//. Vassily Nesterenko, as director of //BELRAD//, was associated as vice-president to the committee of the association. The goal of this association : collect funds for the Institute and broadcast any information about the sanitary truth in the contaminated territories. The radio protection of the children, the most vulnerable to the action of radiation, is the main objective of this partnership.\\
 +<​tab>​Later,​ a small part of the funds (about 5%) was alloccated to the //​Laboratory of Genetics Safety of the National Sciences Academy of Belrus// for the purchase of advanced foreign equipment (which is forbidden on public funds). This dotation allows the laboratory to continue genetic and peri-genetic researches on the consequences of Chernobyl, increase its credibility in front of the Academy, and maintain its international visibility in the important international scientific congresses. The study of the genetic after-effects of the accident is obviously inseparable from the radio protection of the children which is one of the main motivations to protect the future of the next generations.\\
 +<​tab>​In parallel to this quest for financial support, Michel Fernex started an operation of a great importance from a strategic point of vue : publish some essential studies made by Y. Bandazhevsky and his coworkers, and by Vassily Nesterenko in an English peer-reviewed journal. Two main reasons : support the interest f the scientific community for the freeing of one of them,Youri Bandazhevsky by making public the importance of his work[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2004:​etb-088\\ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2004:​etb-036)];​ bring a decisive contribution to the debate about the efficiency of the pectine to accelerate the elimination of  Cs<​sub>​137</​sub>​ incorporated in the body.\\
 +<​tab>​Taking in consideration the bad trial against this alimentary supplement, it was impossible to reach this second goal without a maximum of methodological precautions. A double blind protocol was defined by Vassily Nesterenko and Michel Fernex with the confirmation of  experts from the Nuclear Center of Ispra[(The characteristics and properties of the pectine based formulae were the main issue of the visit of Pr Michel Fernex and Vassily Nesterenko at the Ispra Nuclear Center. See :\\ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2002:​etb-167)]. This protocol was implemented in June 2001 during a stay of two groups of 32 kidscontaminated by Cs137 in a sanitorium where all the food was clean. The first group received Vitapect, and the second group was given a placebo. The highly meaningful results in favour of Vitapect has been published in 2004 by the peer-reviewed journal Swiss Medical Weekly[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2004:​etb-124 et sa traduction française :\\ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2004:​etb-088)].\\
 +<​tab>​Barely five years after its creation, //ETB// went through a hardship with the passing of Solange Fernex and a bad health accident of Michel Fernex. The situation would have been critical for //BELRAD// if a frienly association,​ //Les Enfants de Tchernobyl//​[(http://​www.lesenfantsdetchernobyl.fr/​02B1_Historique.php )], which welcomes since 1993 hundreds of children from Belarus in familial environment for three to four weeks would not have help during several months. Nevertheless,​ the resposibilities taken by Solange Fernex in the association were so impotant that the kickback was rough. //BELRAD//, just established in its new building in Minsk, build thanks to an inexpected and huge donation, was under the threat of a financial starvation.\\
 +<​tab>​Mrs Danielle Mitterrand was a long-standing friend of Solange Fernex, and showed from the beginning her solicitude for the victims of Chernobyl. She also participated abundantly with the foundation //​France-Libertés//​[(http://​www.france-libertes.org)] to the campain for the freeing of Youri Bandazhevsky. Alerted, she obtained from the administration committee the vote of an exceptionnal financial help for three years[(First year : 50% of //​BELRAD//'​s budget ; 25% the second year and 12,5% the third one.)], while //ETB// was reorganized and found back its full action potential. That way, //BELRAD// has been saved.\\
 +<​tab>​It would be too long here to enumerate the full list of //ETB// and its active members actions to publicize the sanitary situation in Belarus, the multiplicity of the damages due to Chernobyl, and the role of //BELRAD// to protect the most exposed children to the fallout od the catastrophe. Let us quote a specially noticeable one, the book by Wladimir Tchertkoff, //Le Crime de Tchernobyl//,​ published in 2006 by //Acted Sud Editions//​[(http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=bibliographie,​ a lot of reference works are available.)]. All these actions are decribed in the reports of the general assembly and in the association newsletters,​ all published on its web site. Other publications are available in the sections base documentaire and archives.\\
 +<​tab>​It is time to give a round figure of the costs and of the results. We will see that the structure between //BELRAD// and //ETB// is the only one which can guarantee the existence of the Institute, and the durability of the support of the association. We will notice too that the choice of //ETB// for //BELRAD// action satisfies the duty towards the contributors to do more with less[(Thus, the audited budgets of the association (cf its Web site) show administrative running costs do not exceed 5% of the collected sums.)].\\
 +<​tab>​It’s known that it is difficult to exert an independent social activity in Belarus : the associations and unions are forbidden so are the assembly of more than three people. The political adversaries are prosecuted and often incarcerated. Fortunately,​ Vassily Nesterenko chose a company status for //BELRAD//. The relationship with //ETB// are strictly commercial. To attack that would be a violation of the international rules in that domain. So //BELRAD// and //ETB// sign commercial contracts generally annual or biannual. every month, the Institute produce an activity report for the execution of the corresponding part of the contract, and includes a bill. Then the association sends the money by the mean of a bank transfer. The investments are financed over detailed and signed estimates (equivalent to pro forma invoices).\\
 +<​tab>​We can represent the situation of our friends from //BELRAD// that way :\\
 +<​tab>​They must stay in a strict political neutrality and commit no indiscretion whatsoever. The population whose children they are taking care of have both poverty and radioactivity. If we can expect that their standard of life will get better not too far from now, the radioactivity of the environment is in place for a very long time. //BELRAD// does its very best for the children, always at the limit of its means. Trying to replace the people forced to quit the Institute last year is quite impossible, because the candidates ask for a salary higher than the ones of the long-standing collaborators. Even if these ones are strongly motivated, giving a better salary to a new employee could introduce a discord in the team. But the team must absolutely be replenished to the minimum of thirty people. Obviously, the increase of work resulting from the three resignations can not last forever.\\
 +<​tab>​The special operation, //​Tchernobyl forever// has two simultaneous goals : give a great breath of fresh air to the cash position of the association to allow an immediate increase of the monthly installment to //BELRAD// (bring them durably from 13,000 € in 2013 to 16,000 €) ; publicize the goals of the association and of the Institute to new people and so enlarge the number of faithful contributors.\\
 +<​tab>​The monthly installment from //ETB// covers 70 to 80% of //​BELRAD//​[[This high ration results in historical links between Solange, Michel Fernex, Wladimir Tchertkoff and Vassily Nesterenko. The contributions from other countries are increasing since a few years and the services solded by //BELRAD// also ; the support from japanese associations is increasing strickingly since the Fukushima catastrophe as a consequence of the solidarity of //Belrad// and //ETB// towards the victims of the radioactivity in Japan.)] expenses. So, with the monthly equivalent of about 20,000 €, the Institute performs its missions on the field to the benefit of about 2,000 children, even some more. We can calculate that the whole activities of the Institute — including mesuring the radioactivity of the food, of the children bodies, distributing the Vitapect to the ones who are contaminated,​ teaching the parents and the employees of schools, the training classes for the specialists in radiation measurements (more than 800 so far), collecting the measurements from the LCRC, maintaining the equipments and the vehicles, maintaining the buildings and working on the administration — as well as salaries, diverses taxes, spents in water, gasoline, electricity and gas, insurances and computer consumables... give us an average cost of 10 €/​year for the radio protection of one child. It is only an extensive minimum protection[(Extensive meaning that each child in generally followed only once a year, except in case of intense contamination which would claim for a renewed surveillance)],​ but well targetted, privileging the most contaminated children while it would be much better to provide an intensive protection using four interventions a year, one for each trimester. This aim is out of reach for the moment.\\
 +<​tab>​Banished from the nations, Belarus suffers more than any other country from the aftermath of Chernobyl catastrophe. Cut off from outside institutional assistance, victim of the strategy of denial of //UN// agencies responsible for radiation protection and of the effects of the radiations, deprived form the opportunity of organizing itself in an independent manner, delved into economical difficulties,​ discouraged the lack of perspective of improvement of its situation, the Byelorussian people who live in the areas contaminated by the radioactive fallout fro the accident are bearing with a slightly enviable fate. The stupborn and solidary presence of //BELRAD// Institute next to them is irreplaceable. It helps each family to hold on, not to give up and pushes parents and school teachers to limit as much as possible the consumption of contaminated food. //BELRAD// would like to do more ; //BELRAD// dreams of having 2 to 3 millions of Euros a year to develop itself and ofer its expertise to all the children exposed to the pollution from Chernobyl. Only with a wide international solidarity it will be possible to approach this objective.\\
 +<​tab>​And when the circumstances will be favorable, then the scientific traesure consisting in the 460,000 measures of the body radioactivity (a good 10 years of following for each child) mightbe able to be compared to the medical statistics of the country. The action of the incorporated cesium on the health will be then scientifically established for the short, medium and long term, and we will have a better knnowledge of its effect on the generations after Chernobyl. Only an independent epidemiological processing can guarantee the honesty of these studies results. The preservation of //BELRAD// Institute is the imperative condition to have a chance to do that. Otherwise, to the sanitary disaster would be added an unprecedented scientific disaster[(Unprecedented officially, because a dive into history reveals that it isnot the first of this naturewith the same origin.)], deliberately organized and promoted by those who arrogate to themselves the mission of radio protection of the world, and obtained from that an authority scealed by votes from the General Assembly of the United Nations.\\
 +<​tab>​It is time to conclude’'​Even if this word is more than ever inappropiriate,​ according to the well known formula from Gustave Flaubert : « The ineptitude is to want to conclude ! »)] with this sentence with which le Pr Dimitri Alexandrovitch Popov, assistant of the director of the soviet radio-protection Leonid Ilyin, ended aworking meeting, on april 18, 1989, at the headquarters of the adimistration of the raïon of Novozibkov to which the author of these lines took part as an independent pollster and opponent with his friend, the ecologist and agronomist Patrice Miran, in front of the responsibles for agriculture,​ health, etc... of this district among the most contaminated of the Republic of Russia. Exceeded by the development of the debate, he declared : « //If people didn’t know, their organism would adapt by itself// ».\\
 +<​tab>​The rats do not know, and unfortunately,​ they do not adapt by themsleves[(About that, see : http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2012:​etb-112//​ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2012:​etb-121//​ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2011:​etb-024//​ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2006:​etb-068//​ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2005:​etb-037//​ http://​enfants-tchernobyl-belarus.org/​doku.php?​id=base_documentaire:​articles-2005:​etb-051)].
 +
 +
 +~~REFNOTES~~
 +++++
chernobylforever.txt · Dernière modification: '15/06/2019 12:59' par Name

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